Mohen jo Daro Means the Mound of Dead. It is a site located on the right Side of Indus River in Sindh Province, Pakistan which is the oldest known civilization of Indus Valley dated back to 2600 BC. Mohen jo Daro was rediscovered in 1922 which was later on acknowledged by UNESCO as world heritage Site.
Mohen jo Daro is one of the oldest civilizations of the world almost contemporary to Egyptian and Mesopotamians Civilizations. It was the most developed City of that Time having well planned streets with well developed drainage system. People of Mohen jo Daro started domesticating Animals like goad, Sheep and Buffaloes etc.
The site of Mohen jo Daro was discovered by a renowned Archaeologist R.D. Banerjee also known as Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay who was a part of the Archaeological Survey of India. He actually visited the Site for identifying the Buddhist Stupa. During his visit he found flint scraper which convinced him that the site is older than 150 CE. In 1922 He with the collaboration of Sir John Marshall again started excavating the Site. In 1964-65 George F. Dales conducted excavations on the Site. Excavations on the site were abandoned in 1965 due to potential threats to the exposed structure through weathering damage.
The site of Mohen jo Daro gives glimpses of a developed urban infrastructure which is evident from its well planned layout primarily based on Street grid system. Construction of the city was mainly done with mortared and fired Bricks but traces of wooden structure and sun-dried bricks are also found. Population of Mohen jo Daro was round about 40000 estimated by some historian covering the area of 300 hectares.
City of Mohen jo Daro is divided into two major parts which are the lower city and the citadel area. In the citadel area there is a brick mound along with public washrooms and a vast residential structure which can accommodate 5000 people at a time. Beside this two spacious halls were also there used for various purposes. A Big well and a Market place were also recorded in the citadel area by scholars. Some of the building also had attached baths which presumably belonged to the wealthy inhabitants of that time. Some traces were found of an underground furnace (hypocaust) used for heated bathing. Residential buildings of that time mostly had courtyards and doors opened toward the side streets which were connected to the main Street. Traces of double storey buildings were also found.
Traces of a huge wooden structure known as “Great Granary” were also unearthed during the excavation of 1950 led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. For the purpose of drying the grains the structure had air duck. People used carts for bringing grains from the remote Areas. Next to the Great Granary is the grand public bath also known as Great Bath.